• Users Online: 246
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-104

Geographic atrophy of the macula

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Date of Submission10-Mar-2015
Date of Acceptance02-May-2015
Date of Web Publication28-Oct-2015

Correspondence Address:
Alaa M Fadel
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, #9 Victor Bassily Street 02061, Alexandria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-9173.165061

Rights and Permissions

Geographic atrophy of the macula is a late form of dry AMD. Changes found on optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) include Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) atrophic changes and window defects, with a pronounced photorecetor layer damage.

Keywords: RPE, IS-OS, photoreceptors, geographic atrophy

How to cite this article:
Fadel AM. Geographic atrophy of the macula . Delta J Ophthalmol 2015;16:103-4

How to cite this URL:
Fadel AM. Geographic atrophy of the macula . Delta J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Jul 2];16:103-4. Available from: http://www.djo.eg.net/text.asp?2015/16/2/103/165061

A 65-year-old man presented with difficulty in recognizing individuals by facial features and loss of ability to read (but the largest fonts) for the past few years.

The patient was hypertensive (controlled on treatment), not diabetic, and otherwise medically free. He had undergone bilateral cataract surgery more than 15 years ago. The left eye surgery was complicated and currently it has a vascularized opaque cornea and visual acuity of no light perception (NLP). The right eye had a 0.1 distance visual acuity with +1.00/−1.00 × 90°. The smallest font he could read was N 36 (with a +3.00 near addition). The right eye showed clear cornea, reasonably centered in-the-bag PC-intraocular lens (IOL), and a YAG laser-opened posterior capsule. Anterior segment was otherwise free and intraocular pressure was 16 mmHg. Fundus examination revealed healthy disc and arteriolar narrowing consistent with grade 2 hypertensive retinopathy and background fundus hypopigmentation that was most marked around the disc and at the macula, in which the lobular pattern of choroid pigmentation was unmasked margining the center of the macula [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Pigment clumps in the macular area

Click here to view

Fluorescein angiography showed normal dye transit time, normal retinal circulation, and normal disc fluorescence. The macula showed multiple hyperfluorescent ovoid patches of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and transmission defects, partially coalescent, with a geographic overall outline[Figure 2].
Figure 2: Multiple RPE Window Defects

Click here to view

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed clear vitreomacular interface, wide foveal pit contour with attenuation and fragmentation of the photoreceptor IS-OS junction layer, and marked thinning of the photoreceptor outer segments band at the fovea. The RPE appeared wavy with multiple humpy elevations, consistent with the presence of drusen [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Loss of IS-OS line

Click here to view

  Background Top

Geographic atrophy of the macula is one of the fates of age-related macular degeneration [1] . Drusen are believed to be a deposition of the metabolic wastes of the photoreceptor outer segments, after being engulfed and metabolized by the RPE. Some components of the drusen material appear to be toxic to the RPE, and its long-term presence seems to cause atrophy of the RPE cells. Photoreceptors are one of the highly metabolically active cell types in the body. Visual pigment metabolism is in particular highly dependent on the metabolic support of a well-functioning and healthy RPE [2] . Photoreceptor degeneration always follows RPE atrophy in a short time interval [3] .

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Göbel AP, Fleckenstein M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, et al. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmologica 2011; 226:182-190.  Back to cited text no. 1
Politoa A, Napolitano MC, Bandello F, et al. The role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and management of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006; 35:420-424.  Back to cited text no. 2
Fleckenstein M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Adrion C, et al. Tracking progression with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in geographic atrophy caused by age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51:3846-3852.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded91    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal